Changes in spatial variations of sap flow in Korean pine trees due to environmental factors and their effects on estimates of stand transpiration


Abstract It is difficult to scale up measurements of the sap flux density (Js) for the characterization of tree or stand transpiration (E) due to spatial variations in JS and their temporal changes. To assess spatial variations in the sap flux density of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and their effects on E estimates, we measured the Js using Granier-type sensors. Within trees, the Js decreased exponentially with the radial depth, and the Js of the east aspects were higher than those of the west aspects. Among trees, there was a positive relationship between Js and the tree diameter at breast height, and this positive relationship became stronger as the transpiration demand increased. The spatial variations that caused large errors in E estimates (i.e., up to 110.8 % when radial variation was ignored) had varied systematically with environmental factors systematic characteristics in relation to environmental factors. However, changes in these variations did not generate substantial errors in the E estimates. For our study periods, the differences in the daily E (E D) calculated by ignoring radial, azimuthal and tree-to-tree variations and the measured E D were fairly constant, especially when the daily vapor pressure deficit (D_D) was higher than 0.6 kPa. These results imply that the effect of spatial variations changes on sap flow can be a minor source of error compared with spatial variations (radial, azimuthal and tree-to-tree variations) when considering E estimates.

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